# Deducing the three gauge interactions from the three Reidemeister moves

Christoph Schiller

Arxiv ID: 0905.3905•Last updated: 10/27/2020

Possibly the first argument for the origin of the three observed gauge groups
and thus for the origin of the three non-gravitational interactions is
presented. The argument is based on a proposal for the final theory that models
nature at Planck scales as a collection of featureless strands that fluctuate
in three dimensions. This approach models vacuum as untangled strands,
particles as tangles of strands, and Planck units as crossing switches.
Modelling vacuum as untangled strands implies the field equations of general
relativity, when applying an argument from 1995 to the thermodynamics of such
strands. Modelling fermions as tangles of two or more strands allows to define
wave functions as time-averages of oriented strand crossing density. Using an
argument from 1980, this allows to deduce the Dirac equation.
When fermions are modelled as tangled strands, gauge interactions appear
naturally as deformation of tangle cores. The three possible types of
observable core deformations are given by the three Reidemeister moves. They
naturally lead to a U(1), a broken and parity-violating SU(2), and a SU(3)
gauge group. The corresponding Lagrangians also appear naturally.
The strand model is unique, is unmodifiable, is consistent with all known
data, and makes numerous testable predictions, including the absence of other
interactions, of grand unification, of supersymmetry and of higher dimensions.
A method for calculating coupling constants seems to appear naturally.

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